HAITI – Creole, Literacy, and Education

The question as to which language or languages to use in educating the children of Haiti and in adult literacy programs, which are organized by both government and voluntary organizations in Haiti, has generated a lot of debate among educationists and the Haitian public at large. Two languages are spoken in Haiti, Creole and French. Creole is the most universally spoken language in Haiti, accounting for over ninety percent of native monolingual speakers; whereas French language has for the past two centuries enjoyed the pride of place as the country’s sole medium of official government and business transactions as well as the language of education. To understand the position of the various parties to this debate, we have to go back to the evolution of language and education in Haiti since its independence from France on January 1, 1804.

Post Independence Haiti Haiti transformed itself from a slave colony of France to a full fledged self-governing and independent entity through sustained armed struggle and war between the French slave owners and their enslaved African fellow human beings. The revolutionary war was long, bitter, but sustained by the grim determination of the enslaved Africans to break the yoke of French enslavement from their necks or otherwise die in the attempt. When the white French were finally expelled from Haiti, their language remained as the means of official communication in all government and business transactions. The place of preeminence and influence vacated by the departing French was taken over by their mulatto offspring, who then occupied the elite upper class of the emergent Haitian society.

The unique position of the half-French and half-African mulattoes, as heirs to their departing French fathers, gave them the economic and political clout to call the shots in all aspects of Haitian public and educational life. This they did by entrenching the continued use of the French language in all official government business, as well as making French the only language of educational instruction. The vast majority of Haitians could neither speak nor write in French. This majority was consisted mostly of the Afro-Haitians, who were uneducated, and thus could not in any way contributed to the national discourse; whereas they constituted over ninety percent of the total Haitian population. The Afro-Haitians spoke only Creole, which until recently, was not recognized as an official language in Haiti.

Modern Haiti The situation of things continued like this for over a hundred years. The little progress made by a rather small number of Afro-Haitians who became educated did not have any effect on the dominant status and position of French language in Haitian national affairs. Instead, by what would amount to a rather ironic twist of events, these Afro-Haitians having moved up from their lowly status in the rural peasantry, through urban low class, to the urban middle class, were more interested in entrenching their positions, rather changing things for better for their fellow marginalized brothers and sisters in the lower classes of Haitian society.

These middle class Afro-Haitians behaved like typical status seeking social climbers, who believed that the French language was their passport to further their upward movement in Haitian society. Hence they teamed up with Haitian mulattoes in the elite upper class to frustrate any attempt at changing the status quo. To complicate issues further for the promotion of Creole into a national language, and a medium of instruction in schools, some members of the peasant class felt that it was better for their children to be taught in French, so that they could escape the poverty trap of Haitian rural peasantry. Even those past Haitian governments that claimed to represent the interests of the masses have hesitated to give Creole and French equal legal status, in order not to step on powerful toes of elite mulattoes in the upper class.

Creole language thus remained an informal medium of communication for over a hundred and seventy years. It was only in the late 1970s that the government gave approval for the use of Creole in education. Implementation of government approval was not wholeheartedly carried out. As late as the 1980s, there was still some doubt about whether Creole should be used in primary schools. In 1987, a major break through came with the inclusion of Creole in the Haitian National Constitution, as a co-national language of Haiti along with French. The door was now open for integration of the more popular Creole language into the school educational system.

However, a lot still needs to be done by both government and non-governmental organizations to really take Creole language into its rightful place as the authentic national language of Haiti. As a first and urgent step, the standardization of Creole orthography should be pursued with vigor by linguists in academia and all those interested in its progress, beyond a mere glorified appendage to French. The National Pedagogic Institute (Institut Pédagogique Nacional–IPN) has taken the initiative by developing an orthography of Creole language that includes elements of the two systems previously in use. In the areas of popular literature, books and magazines need to be produced in Creole at a faster rate than is available at the moment. The print and electronic media have taken tentative steps to popularize Creole literature, but much more needs to be done.

The government of Haiti needs to take the implementation of the relevant portions of the 1987 Haitian National Constitution more seriously. All aspects of the national life of Haiti need to feel the presence of Creole language, as a medium of official transactions. Much work needs to be done urgently in curriculum development at all levels of Haiti’s education, using Creole as a medium of such development. Similarly, adult literacy programs should be established to upgrade the literacy level of Haitian rural peasant and urban lower classes. It is noteworthy that some church groups have taken the bull by the horn, by publishing some religious literature in Creole language. The popular monthly Bon Nouvel, published by a Roman Catholic group, is one such publication. The New Testament half of The Holy Bible has also been published in Creole through the efforts a group of Protestant churches.

Asian TV Channels Available In The USA

Asian TV channels now available in the United States can enhance the viewing pleasure of many Asian Americans. Keeping up with events in their homeland is as easy as turning on the tv. There are a lot of channels available now from Directv and Dish Network. So for those who are not aware of them, we have Korean and Vietnamese channels. They are listed below.

DirecTV Korean

CTS is a premium network which brings to you 24 hours of Korean Christian programming, including sermons, testimonies, praise and worship, documentaries and news.

MBC One of the most watched channels, MBC is a 24 hour Korean broadcast network. Catch some of the most popular children’s programs, latest news and drama everyday.

SBS Stay in touch with what’s happening in Korea through this 24 hour channel with latest information, variety shows, and hit dramas.

SBS Plus Catch the best of Korean “Halliyu” with popular drama, movie programs, and other original programs – 24 hours a day.

YTN Korea’s first round-the-clock news network.

Directv Vietnamese

SBTN Saigon Broadcasting Television Network is the first 24-hour Vietnamese programming network in America which broadcasts a great mix of news, sports, variety, movies, talk shows, children’s programming and more – all in Vietnamese.

TVB Vietnam Catch up on the best TVB dramas and telemovies from past and present dubbed in Vietnamese including themes such as martial arts, costumes, episodic, modern action and situation comedy.

VHN–TV A visual treat for those of you who want to get acquainted with the Vietnamese customs and traditions, this channel believes in creating awareness and education. Features news, drama, education, public service, comedy (traditional and contemporary), entertainment and variety programs.

Dish Network Korean

ARIRANG TV broadcast live from Korea 24-hours-a-day, Arirang TV showcases entertaining and informative programs for viewers of every age and background. Programming includes Korea’s latest box office releases, news, sitcoms, dramas, quiz shows, financial updates, music, documentaries and current affairs programs.

BTN is a 24-hour Korean-language Buddhist channel. BTN’s programming includes Buddhist news, ceremony, priesthood, worship, mass, world temple tour, vegetarian cooking, meditation, yoga, missions and much more from Korea.

JSTV is the #1 rated 24-hour-a-day Korean-language Christian channel in North America. JSTV’s programming includes Christian related news, business, music, bible studies, gospels, worship services and much more. JSTV will also broadcast locally produced programs and programming from the Korean broadcasting channel commonly referred to as CBS.

KBS WORLD, a Korean-language channel with English subtitles, is a general entertainment channel which is the oldest and most popular broadcasting station in Korea. Programming includes the most watched news, sitcoms, dramas, documentaries and current affair programs.

ONGAMENET is a top-rated 24-hour Korean-language gaming channel. Ongamenet’s programming includes gaming industry news, video games, pro-gamer league, competitions and other game-oriented programming straight from Korea.

WOW-TV is a 24-hour-a-day Korean-language business news channel broadcast from Korea. WOW-TV’s programming includes economic updates, the latest stock market information, real estate, e-business, news and much more.

So there you have it, 14 different channels. Entertainment for the whole family, young and old alike. Instead of seeing a five minute clip of news from the Asia, watch indepth coverage of the same event. It’s like bringing your homeland in to your livingroom.

Student Loans – Hassle Free

Students these day seem to have many expenses. It is probably the effect of inflation that is driving education costs higher and higher and that is where the benefits of student loans come in.

These loans make it a lot easier for students to cope by helping them where they need it the most, in their hip pocket. Certainly, the minute you have been granted your loan, the world will seem a much better place.

With the added costs and expenses that are being thrust upon the students of today, it is no wonder that they have to take out one,two or even three loans to help them cover the costs of their study. What can happen is that the student starts to get overwhelmed with the total amount that he has to pay back on a monthly basis.

The student may have the words of the comedian Oliver Hardy ringing in his (or her) ears…

“this is ANOTHER fine mess you’ve got us into!”

The Answer

The good thing is that the answer is close at hand and that answer is:

A Student Debt Management Plan that incorporates a Student Consolidation Loan

This is where all of the student’s loans are rolled into just one loan, this is a ‘bite sized’ loan which will have lower repayments that will make it more affordable for the student.


Before you embark on obtaining a student consolidation loan, you will have to do your due diligence. In other words, you will need to research exactly what type of loan you should get and ask several other students about their opinions of what loans worked for them. This will give you an idea of what is actually working and what are some of the pitfalls.

More Research

It is always a good idea to do some more research on what your current options are. One of the best places to find out more information is to talk to your local counsellor that is what they are there for, they will have lots of the answers that you seek.

The other method of course is finding out on the internet and narrow your search down to the companies that are local to your area.

One idea is to keep a record of all of the research that you do, then compare the main points from all of the loan institutions that you are considering.

This will help clarify exactly what loan will be the right fit for you and also help to save you money over the term of the loan because you will easily see the charges for each company and your spreadsheet will make that easier.

I hope you have learned some more information about student loans that will help you sort it all out.

Are Pell Grants And Student Loans Really Constitutional?

The Pell grants is a type of post-secondary educational federal grant which is sponsored by the US Department of Education. The Pell grants are constitutional as they are covered by the legislation titled the Higher Education Act of 1965. Pell grants originally known as the Basic Educational opportunity Grant Program are awarded on formula based on financial need. This formula is determined by the congress using criteria submitted the Free Application for Federal Student (FAFSA).

Federal Pell grants are awarded to the undergraduate students who don’t have a bachelor or professional degree. The amount of money that you can receive under the federal Pell grant is based on your need, the cost of Attendance at your school for both part time and full time students. The US Department of Education has a standard formula to determine if one is eligible or not to get approved for Pell grants.

In the United States, the federal loans are authorized under the title IV of the Higher Education Act. They can be subsidized by the US government depending on the student’s financial need. Both subsidized and unsubsidized loans are guaranteed by the US Department of Education. Almost all the students are eligible to receive them. Subsidized federal loans are offered to the ones who come with a demonstrated financial need. Federal government makes interest payments for these students while the students remain in the college. Unsubsidized federal loans, on the other hand, are also guaranteed by the US government but on these loans the government does not pay interest for the students, rather interest accrues on the loans. Interest begins accruing on $12, 000. There are basically two distribution channels for federal student loans i.e. Federal Direct Student Loans and Federal Family Education Loans.

Federal Direct Student Loans are funded from public capital originating with the US Treasury. FDLP are distributed through a channel beginning with the US Treasury Department, goes to the U.S Department of Education and passing through the college or university goes to the students.

Federal Family Education Loan programs are funded with private capitals which come from banking institutions. Through these loans, students are able to take payment options like allowing a discount for automatic payments or a series of on time payments.

Private student loans are not funded or guaranteed by government agencies but advocates of private student loans suggest that they combine the best elements of different government loans into one.

Go Mobile! Take Your Social Media Marketing Efforts to a Higher Level

By now, most businesses know how vital social media marketing is for their bottom line. From keeping a pulse on your customers’ experience to branding your company to promoting your products and services, social media marketing allows you to do so much for so little.Yet, one of the main complaints businesses cite about staying on top of their social media marketing efforts is the time involved to do so. They feel that someone has to be tied to the computer 24/7 to make the effort effective. Fortunately, with today’s mobile applications and technology, social media marketing is being reborn as a mobile experience – a mobile social media marketing initiative, so to speak.As more people realize and embrace the fact that social media marketing is a real time experience rather than a “wait till I get to my computer” experience, they’re taking advantage of the processing power today’s mobile phones have to offer. So while real time does mean you have to have your computer with you at all times, that computer is now your cell phone, not your laptop or desktop.Why should businesses focus on mobile social media marketing? Consider this: Right now around the world, 1.1 billion people use the internet, 1.4 billion people watch television, and 2.2 billion people use mobile phones. So if we look at the power of social media going mobile, we quickly see that it has the potential to be more powerful than television watching, simply because it’s interactive and with you at all times.The Driving ForcesBoth technology and people are driving the prevalence of mobile social media. One of the basic human needs since the dawn of time is to connect with others. Additionally, today’s increased processing power, bandwidth, and storage available on mobile devices enables people to have better audio and video capability on their phones. This means people can communicate with their phone more effectively, in a way that goes beyond your basic phone call. And any time technology allows you to communicate and connect better, you have a revolution. From smoke signals to telegraphs to telephones to cell phones to the mobile social media, all are evolutions that cause revolutions.Other driving factors include globalization and localization. Globalization means you can now connect to the world with your phone. You don’t need a laptop or a television to see news feeds from around the world. At the same time, it’s local. You have access to local events and happenings. With permission, you can see where your friends or employees are at any given time. So your phone can deliver much more than just weather forecasts; you can also know what’s going on around you at all times.The Case for Mobile Social MediaBecause the phone was designed for two-way communication and social media marketing is a two-way dialogue, it’s a natural extension to have cell phone applications for mobile social media – programs for your cell phone that allow you to view and post to various social media sites.With mobile social media, we’re no longer just sharing information; we’re disseminating knowledge in an organized way, getting feedback, and gaining additional knowledge to help us grow. Between text messages, tweets, blogs, and other social media posts, we’re seeing a shift in how people discover, read, and share news, information, and content. We’re learning information in real time before the evening news or morning paper reports it.If your company is using social media marketing but has not yet gone mobile with it, you must do so right away. Here’s why:
It expands your internet footprint. You can only monitor and respond to so many Facebook, Twitter, and other social media posts from your desk. However, when you can post from your phone, you can say what’s on your mind whenever you want. As such, you expand your internet footprint and make it easier for prospects to find you.
It improves your search engine rankings. Each post you put out on the social media networks points back to you or your company. That increases your listings on search engine results. So where you might have been listed 1,000 times, you’re now listed 3,000 times.
It establishes you as the expert. When you can post your information and ideas at any time, it will happen more often, which builds your reputation and credibility.
It improves communication and feedback. Many companies are monitoring people’s tweets on Twitter and posts on Facebook. If they notice people who have problems with their company, products, or services, they find out about it right away and make changes in real time. This, in turn, builds positive relationships with customers.
It drives a steady stream of prospects to your business. All of the social media sites are becoming business friendly, enabling you to create a business-oriented presence. As they’re becoming more business friendly, they’re going to be very mobile friendly. It’s the next iteration.

It fuels content generation. Because you’re micro-blogging and doing Facebook entries, you’re creating content and getting it out there. And since content is king these days, you definitely need a way to keep your information flowing into your prospects’ and customers’ hands.
It supports decision-making. You can make better decisions if you’re monitoring what’s going on in social media about your industry, marketplace, etc. And when you get these updates directly to your phone, you don’t have to wait until Monday morning when you get to your office to make a big decision. You can make it and implement it in real time.
Go Mobile TodayIn short, the mobile era takes all the benefits of social media marketing and puts them in your hands at all times. It also frees you from your computer so you have more time for other activities.As the business world evolves, our ways of communicating with prospects and customers must evolve too. Remember, it used to be about distributing content; now it’s about getting people’s attention and engaging with them. It used to be about gaining shelf space; now it’s about gaining mind share. It used to be about mass marketing; now it’s about niche marketing. It used to be about trying to control your customers; now it’s about using influence and reputation to generate desired results. When you incorporate your mobile device as a key way to achieve your business objectives and attain these benefits, you open your company up to a whole new world of sales and profits.